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In the 17th century, Oldenburg was a wealthy town in a time of war and turmoil and its population and power grew considerably.
In 1667, the town was struck by a disastrous plague epidemic and, shortly after, a fire destroyed Oldenburg.
The Danish kings, who were also counts of Oldenburg at the time, were not much interested in the condition of the town and it lost most of its former importance. It was only then that the destroyed buildings in the city were rebuilt in a neoclassicist style.
(In German, the ‘neoclassicist style’ of that period would usually be called klassizistisch, while neoklassizistisch specifically refers to the classicist style of the early 20th century.) After German Emperor Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate following the exhaustion and defeat of the German Empire in World War I, monarchic rule ended in Oldenburg as well with the abdication of Grand Duke Frederick Augustus II of Oldenburg (Friedrich August II von Oldenburg) on 11 November 1918.
In 1945, after World War II, the State of Oldenburg was part of the British zone of occupation.